Greetings and welcome! You're probably already familiar with the conjunctions "Und", "Weil", "Oder", "Aber", "Das", and "Denn". But do you know when they are followed by a main or subordinate clause? What is a main clause (Hauptsatz) and what is a subordinate clause (Nebensatz)? Where do they require a comma? All these questions will be answered in this video.
Let's start by talking about conjunctions (Konjunktionen) – a term I learned as BINDEWÖRTER in school. This is quite fitting, as BINDE comes from the verb VERBINDEN, which means to connect. Essentially, these are words that connect sentences.
In German, we're fans of lengthy sentences, making these conjunctions quite essential. This video will cover all A1 German conjunctions, also known as A1 Konjunktionen. However, to use them correctly, you'll also need to know the different sentence types, or Satzarten.
Here we have two types: Hauptsatz (main clause) and Nebensatz (subordinate clause). The Hauptsatz consists of different positions: position one is usually the subject, position two houses the verb (the conjugated verb), and then we have the 'mittelfeld' and 'satzende' – anything in between and the sentence end, respectively.
For example, consider the sentence "Du lernst heute Deutsch". Here, "Du" is the subject, "lernst" is the conjugated verb, and "heute Deutsch" constitutes additional information. Similarly, in "Lisa kauft morgen eine Tasche", Lisa is the subject, "kauft" is the verb, and "morgen eine Tasche" is the object.
Now, let's look at the Nebensatz, or subordinate clause. Here, position one houses the conjunction, followed by the subject in position two. We then again have a middle field and end of sentence for additional information, with the conjugated verb located at the sentence end. Remember that a subordinate clause cannot stand alone - it must be accompanied by a main clause.
If you want to delve deeper into these sentence types and structure, you'll find more videos on this in the description below. Now, let's start discussing the conjunctions.
Und (And): Und is a conjunction of the main clause (Hauptsatz). It is always found at position 0, connecting two main clauses. Example: "Das ist Max und Lisa geht oft wandern" (This is Max, and Lisa often goes hiking).
Oder (Or): Oder is also a main clause conjunction, offering an alternative between two clauses. Example: "Am Morgen trinke ich einen Kaffee oder mache einen Tee" (In the morning, I drink coffee or make tea).
Aber (But): Another main clause conjunction, Aber is used to show contrast or contradiction between two clauses. Example: "Am Morgen trinke ich einen Kaffee, aber esse kein Frühstück" (In the morning, I drink coffee but don't eat breakfast).
Denn (Because): Denn is a main clause conjunction that introduces a cause or reason. Example: "Ich esse ein Sandwich, denn ich habe Hunger" (I eat a sandwich because I'm hungry).
Weil (Because): Unlike the others, Weil is a subordinate clause conjunction that introduces a reason or cause. Example: "Ich esse ein Sandwich, weil ich Hunger habe" (I eat a sandwich because I'm hungry).
If you're interested in learning more, get in touch with us, we teach you useful phrases while covering the fundamentals of German grammar.
See you in the next lesson. Bye! Bye!